We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized plane waves. The goal of the optimization is to find a grating design that maximizes diffraction efficiency for the -1st transmission order when illuminated by unpolarized plane waves. Results indicate that a surface relief transmission grating can be designed with a diffraction efficiency of more than 40% in a broadband range going from the ultraviolet region, through the visible region and into the near-infrared region.
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